The word ‘chemical’ has always gained negative attention in the eyes of the public even when it enhances their lives. This is because of the side-effects it causes on the environment due to pollution and toxicity.
Kinds of chemicals:
The chemical industry basically produces 4 kinds of chemicals:
- Commodity chemicals: Chemicals that are used by other chemical industries before becoming a consumer product. These are produced at huge scale. For example, petrochemicals produced in a refinery such as olefins and aromatics go on to become polymers.
- Fine chemicals: Starting materials for speciality chemicals. These are of very high purity and are produced in limited quantities. Hence these are low-volume, high-value products.
- Speciality chemicals: Pharmaceuticals, Dyestuff and pigments, flavours and fragrances, speciality polymers, catalysts and enzymes, food additives. These are consumer products.
- Renewable energy: Biofuels such as ethanol, biogas.
These chemicals are produced using some basic unit operations and unit processes such as:
Unit process + unit operation = an entire chemical process
Unit operations involve physical separation of products that are obtained from unit processes. While unit processes involve chemical conversion of substances.
Some examples of unit processes are:
- Fluid flow operations: e.g. fluid mixing
- Heat transfer operations: e.g. evaporation
- Mass transfer operations: e.g. distillation, extraction
- Thermodynamic operations: e.g. refrigeration
- Mechanical operations: e.g. crushing of solids, sedimentation
Note that these processes overlap i.e. they are interrelated. For example: Evaporation is both a heat transfer as well as a mass transfer operation as it involves the transfer of both heat and mass.
Chemical processes are capable of eliminating the pollution and toxicity that is caused by it. But how? Paul Anastas and Julie Zimmerman developed 12 principles of green engineering. These can be found in Env. Sci. and Tech., 37, 5, 94A-101A, 2003 or at ACS. These are similar to the 12 principles of green engineering because Chemistry and Chemical Engineering are interdependent on each other. Both of them can be viewed side-by-side here.
Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Whereas, green engineering is the development and commercialization of industrial processes that are economically feasible and reduce the risk to human health and the environment.
A chemical engineer needs the following things:
- Efficiency of the process: It should be efficient in all respects – energy or water efficient for example.
- Safety of the process: It should be safe to carry out throughout its production line.
- Financial feasibility of the process: If it is not profitable, it won’t work out.
- Green engineering knowledge that helps achieve above points
Examples of green engineering:
Integrate Material and Energy Flows: Design of products, processes, and systems must include integration and interconnectivity with available energy and materials flows.
Optimization of heat is crucial for energy savings. Energy savings mean fuel savings. Fuel savings mean less greenhouse gas emissions. Pinch Technology provides such a thermodynamically based optimization methodology for energy saving in processes.
Renewable Rather Than Depleting: Material and energy inputs should be renewable rather than depleting.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is another technique to save energy. In this, the heat engine or power station simultaneously generate electricity and useful heat.
Some unit processes/operations require cooling. A major coolant in the chemical industry is water. It is used in large cooling towers. It has to be treated and reused since it can be contaminated with chemicals it comes in contact with. These chemicals could also be entrained by surrounded air and cause airborne emission problems. For this purpose, drift eliminators are used – an air pollution control measure.
Inherent Rather Than Circumstantial: Designers need to strive to ensure that all materials and energy inputs and outputs are as inherently nonhazardous as possible.
A part of my Masters thesis involved catalytic transfer hydrogenation. It is the transfer of hydrogen atoms from a donor reagent to a substrate under catalysis. It is supposedly the safest way to carry out a hydrogenation reaction. Hydrogenation reaction is one of the deadliest of all reactions since it involves hydrogen gas. Hydrogen gas is very light and diffuses into the air very quickly. It is highly flammable too. Not a nice combination. It not only catches fire but spreads wildly. Transfer hydrogenation on the other hand doesn’t require hydrogen gas, it just needs the donor reagent. I think the reason it is not so good to scale-up is because it would need change in existing infrastructure and that comes at a cost.
Another example of safer engineering is eco-friendly coolants. Transformers made it possible for electricity to reach long distances without huge losses. Polychlorinated biphenyls is a banned coolant fluid that was used to cool these transformers. Efforts have been made to produce greener coolants. In 2013, Cargill won the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for developing Envirotemp™ FR3™, a eco-friendly coolant. It can be used in high voltage electrical transformers.
Meet Need, Minimize Excess: Design for unnecessary capacity or capability (e.g., “one size fits all”) solutions should be considered a design flaw.
Effluent treatment plants (ETP) often are of the ‘one size fits all’ kind. We call them Common Effluent Treatment plants (CETP). Instead, each plant can have its own ETP. Individual ETPs are more efficient than CETPs.