Isosteres are substances with similar molecular and electronic characteristics. They may not be structurally related, but they often have similar physical properties. They are chemical substances, atoms or substituents that possess nearly equal or similar molecular shape and volume, approximately the same distribution of electrons and which exhibit similar chemical properties. Benzene and pyridine are classical … Continue reading Isosteres

Toxicity generating mechanisms

This post assumes you are well-versed with electrophiles and nucleophiles along with basics of Biology. If not, here are some links for you that can help. Video - DNA (Khan Academy) Nucleophiles, Electrophiles and Leaving Groups Toxicity generating mechanisms involving electrophiles: Electrophilic substitution or those metabolized to electrophilic species are capable of reacting covalently with … Continue reading Toxicity generating mechanisms

Designing a safer chemical

Here are some strategies for safer chemical design: Reduce absorption Use of toxicity generating mechanism Use of structure activity (toxicity) relationships Use of isosteric replacements Use of retrometabolic ('soft' chemical) design Identification of equally efficacious less toxic chemical substitutes of another class Elimination for the need for associated toxic substances While considering these aspects, it … Continue reading Designing a safer chemical