Isosteres

Photo by Retha Ferguson on Pexels.com Isosteres are substances with similar molecular and electronic characteristics. They may not be structurally related, but they often have similar physical properties. They are chemical substances, atoms or substituents that possess nearly equal or similar molecular shape and volume, approximately the same distribution of electrons and exhibit similar chemical … Continue reading Isosteres

Toxicity generating mechanisms

Photo by Chris LeBoutillier on Pexels.com This post assumes you are well-versed with electrophiles and nucleophiles along with basics of Biology. If not, here are some links for you that can help. Video - DNA (Khan Academy)Nucleophiles, Electrophiles and Leaving Groups Electrophilic substitution or those metabolized to electrophilic species are capable of reacting covalently with … Continue reading Toxicity generating mechanisms

Designing a safer chemical

Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on Pexels.com Let's get right into the meat of this topic. Here are some strategies for safer chemical design: Reduce absorptionUse of toxicity generating mechanismUse of structure activity (toxicity) relationshipsUse of isosteric replacementsUse of retrometabolic ('soft' chemical) designIdentification of equally efficacious less toxic chemical substitutes of another classElimination for the need … Continue reading Designing a safer chemical