Wealth from waste
What is waste?
It is something that has nuisance value. If it cannot be assigned a positive value, it is called waste. But a waste today may not be a waste tomorrow. A waste to me, may not be a waste to you.
For example, one can manufacture plasticizers from waste.
Plastic is one component of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is becoming a major research issue for its possible use in concrete especially in self-compacting concrete and light weight concrete. Although some of these materials can be beneficially incorporated in concrete, both as part of the cementitious binder phase or as aggregates, it is important to realize that not all waste materials are suitable for such use.
Another example is NEWater.
NEWater is the brand name given to ultra-pure water that is produced from reclaimed water. Wastewater, which is called used water in Singapore, is treated in conventional advanced wastewater treatment plants that are called reclamation plants in Singapore. The effluent from the reclamation plants is either discharged into the sea or it is further trated in NEWater plants using dual-membrane (via microfiltration and reverse osmosis) and ultraviolet technologies. The quality of NEWater is monitored by, among others, an international panel of experts. The quality of NEWater exceeds WHO standards for drinking water. In 2012, there were four NEWater factories, located at the Bedok, Kranji, Ulu Pandan and Changi next to five water reclamation plants. Most of the NEWater is used by industries for non-potable uses such as wafer fabrication. The rest is fed into nearby reservoirs.
Who studies waste?
Licensor. Licensor tells the manufacturer the amount of waste that will be produced by the plant. UOP is one such licensor.
(Flickr image: dullhunk)